The common ion effect

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Intros
Lessons
  1. What is the common ion effect?
  2. Changing the solubility equilibrium.
  3. How do we decrease solubility of a compound?
  4. How do we increase solubility of a compound?
  5. Changing solubility: Worked example (MgSO4).
  6. pH and solubility.
  7. (AP) Entropy of dissolution.
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Examples
Lessons
  1. Recall the use of the common-ion effect to change the solubility of a saturated solution.
    A student has a saturated solution of AgCl, which is in equilibrium with its ions.

    AgCl (s) β€‰β‡Œβ€‰\, \rightleftharpoons \, Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

    What will adding the following salts to the saturated solution do to the solubility equilibrium?
    Explain your answer.
    1. Pb(NO3)2
    2. Na2S
    3. AgNO3
    4. KCl
      1. Apply the common ion effect to suggest ways of changing the solubility of a saturated solution.
        A student has a saturated solution of lead chloride, with the precipitate in equilibrium with its aqueous ions.

        PbCl2 β€‰β‡Œβ€‰\, \rightleftharpoons \, Pb2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq)

        What compounds could be added to have the following effects on the PbCl2 solution?
        1. Increase solubility.
        2. Decrease solubility.