1. isolate X's on one side of the equation

2. factor out the

*of $X^2$*

__leading coefficient__3. "completing the square"

• X-side: inside the bracket, add (half of the coefficient of $X)^2$

• Y-side: add [

*$\cdot$ (half of the coefficient of $X)^2$ ]*

__leading coefficient__4. clean up

• X-side: convert to perfect-square form

• Y-side: clean up the algebra