1. isolate X's on one side of the equation

2. factor out the

3. "completing the square"

• X-side: inside the bracket, add (half of the coefficient of $X)^2$

• Y-side: add [

4. clean up

• X-side: convert to perfect-square form

• Y-side: clean up the algebra

5. (optional)

If necessary, determine the vertex now by setting both sides of the equation equal to ZERO.

6. move the constant term from the Y-side to the X-side, and we have a quadratic function in vertex form!