**CBSE Class 8 Maths: An Overview**

CBSE Class 8 is one of the most pivotal and beneficial positions in a student’s academic career. If you aim to score well in your further grades, you need to be clear with understanding all basic elements of this particular class since it is quite essential for your future studies. For every subject in CBSE Class 8, the student must understand the concepts in detail because the knowledge levels of the upcoming grades will be dependent on this very class. So, say YES to happy learning and NO to pre-exam pressures!

Mathematics In CBSE Class 8, the students learn many new fundamentals of Mathematics. They will have a clear notion about the syllabus structure and the marking scheme for the entire academic year. This will help them to prepare in a better way with proper instructions and knowledge.

The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy.

In this chapter, the definition of rational numbers, properties, followed by a few examples and activities are provided for a better understanding and practice purpose. The sub-chapters are:

**1.1 Introduction**

This section familiarizes the students with the background of rational numbers.

**1.2 Properties of Rational Numbers**

Properties like Closure Property, Commutative Property, Associative Property, Distributive Property, Identity Property, and Inverse Property are discussed.

**1.3 Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line**

Representation of Rational Numbers as a proper fraction or improper fraction on the number line is discussed here.

**1.4 Rational Number between Two Rational Numbers**

A rational number is explained as a p/q ratio thus as a fraction.

In this chapter, linear equations and various methods to solve for X are determined here. Reducing equations from complexity to simpler form is discussed with a few examples and activities followed after each topic. The sub-chapters are:

**2.1 Introduction**

Defines linear equations and explains different types of linear equations; solutions to linear quotations in one, two, and three variables.

**2.2 Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one Side and Numbers on the Other Side**

Discusses Graphical Method, Elimination Method, Substitution Method, Cross Multiplication Method, Matrix Method, and Determinants Method for solving equations.

**2.3 Some Applications**

Here we are going to discuss the linear equation applications and how to use them in the real world with the help of an example.

**2.4 Solving Equations having the Variable on both sides**

This section explains methods to solve equations with variables on both sides.

**2.5 Some More Applications**

This section offers more applications for linear equations.

**2.6 Reducing Equations to Simpler Form**

Here we discuss how equations can be rewritten into simple forms by performing mathematical operations on them.

**2.7 Equations Reducible to the Linear Form**

This part of the chapter explains the equations that are reducible to the linear form.

This chapter is an exclusive unit on quadrilaterals. Starting with the definition of quadrilaterals, various types of quadrilaterals, their properties, and functionalities are discussed in this unit. The sub-chapters are:

**3.1 Introduction**

This part familiarizes the students with the concepts of quadrilaterals and various quadrilaterals.

**3.2 Polygons**

Here we define a polygon and discuss various shapes, types, properties of polygons.

**3.3 Some of the Measures of the Exterior Angles of a Polygon**

Here we distinguish between internal and exterior angles at each vertex varies for all types of polygons and learn in detail the concept of its exterior angles.

**3.4 Kinds of Quadrilaterals**

This section explains about different types of quadrilaterals.

**3.5 Some Special Parallelograms**

Here we learn about Two – Dimensional Shapes and Three – Dimensional Shapes.

This chapter is all about constructions of quadrilaterals, how to take measurements, and the steps used to construct them. The sub-chapters are:

**4.1 Introduction**

Providing the student’s information about the concept of Geometry.

**4.2 Constructing a Quadrilateral**

Here we learn different ways to construct a quadrilateral.

**4.3 Some Special Cases**

In this section, we discuss the construction of the Rhombus.

Storing, extracting, utilizing, and collecting data, these operations are involved in this chapter. This is more or less a theory and a scoring chapter as it is a simple and easily understood unit in the syllabus. The sub-chapters are:

**5.1 Looking for Information**

This section provides insights to improve the students’ visualization of the information.

**5.2 Organising Data**

Here we discuss grouping and organizing the data using tally marks.

**5.3 Grouping Data**

This part of the chapter efficiently deals with grouping of data.

**5.4 Circle Graph or Pie Chart**

This section explains the concept of a pie chart or circle graph and its advantages.

**5.5 Chance and Probability**

This section of the chapter explains the chance and probability of occurrence of events and its formula.

In this chapter, determining a square root of a simple number, or conversion of a square root to the normal number and vice-versa, also estimating the number of square roots of any random number using few formulas and shortcut methods, these are a few topics covered under this unit. The sub-chapters are:

**6.1 Introduction**

This part of the chapter provides an introduction to the concept of squares and the square roots of numbers.

**6.2 Properties of Square Numbers**

This section lists out various properties applicable to square numbers.

**6.3 Some More Interesting Patterns**

This section provides some patterns that can be found in squares and square roots of numbers.

**6.4 Finding the Square of a Number**

Here we discuss square numbers as a product of the same numbers; odd and even square numbers and properties of squares.

**6.5 Square Roots**

This part of the chapter discusses Square Root of a Number by Repeated Subtraction.

**6.6 Square Roots of Decimals**

Here we discuss how to find the square root of decimals using the prime factorization method.

**6.7 Estimating Square Root**

In this section, we learn the method of estimation of square root.

In this chapter cube roots and conversion of normal number to cube root and vice versa are discussed in this chapter. The sub-chapters are:

**7.1 Introduction**

This provides the students with information on the concept of cubes of numbers.

**7.2 Cubes**

Here we discuss the concept of the cube, ways to find a perfect cube and the application of the perfect cube.

**7.3 Cubes Roots**

In this section we see what is a cube root, finding a cube root of numbers, finding cube root by prime factorization along with a few example questions.

This is another scoring and easy chapter, from an examination point of view. The topics like simple and compound interest, the meaning of tax and various types of taxes, and how to calculate a simple tax problem with tips and tricks are a few topics explained under this unit. Also, ratios and percentages are significant topics in this chapter. The sub-chapters are:

**8.1 Recalling Ratios and Percentages**

Here we recall the concepts by looking into the Formula, How to find Percentage, Percentage Difference, Percentage Increase and Decrease.

**8.2 Finding the Increase and Decrease Percent**

This section explains how to find the increase and decrease percent with examples.

**8.3 Finding Discounts**

This section explains how to find discounts.

**8.4 Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss)**

This section of the chapter discusses buying and selling-related prices.

**8.5 Sales Tax/Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax**

In this module, we look into the taxes such as sales tax and goods tax.

**8.6 Compound Interest**

This module of this chapter defines and explains various concepts of compound interest.

**8.7 Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest**

As a continuation of the above subtopic, a formula related to the same is discussed in this section.

**8.8 Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly (Semi-Annually)**

In this sub-topic, we discuss the Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly

**8.9 Applications of Compound Interest Formula**

In this sub-topic, we discuss various applications of the formula that was deduced in the previous subsection.

This chapter being one of the vast and tough concepts, it is equally important and a high priority chapter in the entire syllabus. A day-to-day practice and thorough understanding help a lot to secure a good score in this chapter.

This chapter involves definitions of expression, factors, coefficients, monomial, binomial and polynomials, etc, also problems on solving expressions and performing basic arithmetic operations of algebraic expressions by understanding a few solved model examples and at the end of each topic, an ample set of exercises are provided for practice purposes. The sub-chapters are:

**9.1 What are Expressions?**

This section defines and explains the term expression and discusses various types of expressions.

**9.2 Terms, Factors, and Coefficients**

Here we define and understand the concept of a term, factor, and coefficient with respect to expression.

**9.3 Monomials, Binomials, and Polynomials**

In this sub-topic, we learn about monomials, binomials, and polynomials.

**9.4 Like and Unlike Terms**

In this sub-topic, we learn about like and unlike terms.

**9.5 Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions**

Here we look into the addition and subtraction of algebraic expressions with various examples.

**9.6 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions: Introduction**

This subtopic introduces the concept of multiplication of monomials.

**9.7 Multiplying a Monomial by a Monomial**

Here we see how a monomial can be multiplied with a monomial.

**9.8 Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial**

In this sub-topic, we see the multiplication of a monomial with a polynomial.

**9.9 Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial**

This section explains how a polynomial is multiplied by a polynomial.

**9.10 What is an Identity?**

This section defines an identity.

**9.11 Standard Identities**

In this sub-topic, we learn what is a standard identity and list various standard identities.

**9.12 Applying Identities**

As a continuation of the above sub-topic, we learn how to apply an identity.

In this chapter, a clear understanding of all solid shapes is rigorously studied. Keen observation is given to every shape with pictorial representation and exercise for practice purposes. The sub-chapters are:

**10.1 Introduction**

This section of the chapter provides a detailed introduction to the visualization of solid shapes.

**10.2 View of 3D-Shapes**

Here, we learn about various 3D shapes.

**10.3 Mapping Space Around Us**

In this sub-topic of this chapter, we see how to map space between us.

**10.4 Faces, Edges, and Vertices**

This subtopic provides us with an understanding of face, edge, and vertex.

In this chapter, starting with an introduction covered in previous years, areas and perimeters of quadrilaterals are calculated. Apart from that, volumes and capacities of various-shaped quadrilaterals are also calculated here. There are many solved examples for understanding and many more exercises for practice purposes. The sub-chapters are:

**11.1 Introduction**

This subtopic of this chapter provides an introduction to the mensuration concepts.

**11.2 Let us Recall**

Here we recall the concepts discussed in the previous section.

**11.3 Area of Trapezium**

This section of the chapter discusses the way to find the area of a trapezium.

**11.4 Area of General Quadrilateral**

Here we look into the way of finding the area of a general quadrilateral.

**11.5 Area of Polygons**

In this sub-topic, we learn how to find the area of a polygon.

**11.6 Solid Shapes**

In this subsection, we discuss various solid shapes.

**11.7 Surface Area of Cube, Cuboid, and Cylinder**

In this sub-topic, we learn about the concept of surface area and look into the surface area of a cube, cuboid, and cylinder.

**11.8 Volume of Cube, Cuboid, and Cylinder**

Here we define the volume of the cube, cuboid, and cylinder.

**11.9 Volume and Capacity**

In this sub-topic, we discuss volume and capacity.

In this chapter, the topics exponents, powers, and their formulas and applications are explained in detail here. Also, all the laws of exponents are discussed followed by examples and exercises for better understanding. The sub-chapters are:

**12.1 Introduction**

This part of the chapter defines and provides an introduction to exponent and power.

**12.2 Powers with Negative Exponents**

In this sub-topic, we understand the powers with negative exponents.

**12.3 Laws of Exponents**

Here we discuss various laws of the exponents.

**12.4 Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Form**

In this sub-topic, we express small numbers using exponents.

This is one of the smallest and easy chapters in the syllabus. Definition of direct and inverse proportions are explained, along with their differences, and properties. The sub-chapters are:

**13.1 Introduction**

This provides an introduction to direct and inverse proportions.

**13.2 Direct Proportion**

Here we look deeper into the concepts of direct proportion.

**13.3 Inverse Proportion**

In this subtopic, we learn about various topics of inverse proportion.

In this chapter, the important topic factorization is covered starting with its definition, from basic problems to advanced level exercises are provided for better understanding and practice purposes. The sub-chapters are:

**14.1 Introduction**

This provides an introduction to concepts of factorization.

**14.2 What is Factorisation?**

Here we look into factorization with examples.

**14.3 Division of Algebraic Expressions**

In this sub-topic, we learn about the division of algebraic expressions.

**14.4 Division of Algebraic Expressions Continued (Polynomial /****Polynomial)**

As a continuation of the above sub t,opic, we look into the division of

polynomials by polynomials.

**14.5 Can you Find the Error?**

Here we learn about the error.

In this chapter, the importance of graphs, types of graphs, and meaning of linear graphs and their applications and properties are discussed in this chapter. The sub-chapters are:

**15.1 Introduction**

This provides an introduction to the concept of graph theory.

**15.2 Linear Graphs**

Here we learn about linear graphs.

**15.3 Some Applications**

In this sub-topic, we see some examples of linear graphs.

This chapter is a fun and interesting unit with simple and easy concepts. There are many activities and problems for good practice and memorizing the methods. The sub-chapters are:

**16.1 Introduction**

This introduces various number pattern concepts.

**16.2 Numbers in General Form**

Here we look into the numbers in a general form.

**16.3 Game with Numbers**

In this sub-topic, we look into games with numbers.

**16.4 Letters for Digits**

Here we learn about letters for digits and how to use them.

**16.5 Test of Divisibility**

In this sub-topic, we learn about the test of divisibility for various numbers.

The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy.

- Chapter 1- Rational Numbers
- EXC 1.1 Solution
- EXC 1.2 Solution

Chapter 2- Linear Equation in One Variable

Chapter 3- Understanding Quadrilaterals

Chapter 4- Practical Geometry

Chapter 5- Data Handling

Chapter 6- Squares and Square Roots

Chapter 7- Cubes and Cube Roots

Chapter 8- Comparing Quantities

Chapter 9- Algebraic Expressions and Identities

Chapter 10- Visualising Solid Shapes

Chapter 11- Mensuration

Chapter 12- Exponents and Powers

Chapter 13- Direct and Inverse Proportions

Chapter 14- Factorisation

Chapter 15- Introduction to Graphs

Chapter 16- Playing with Numbers

The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy.

*Chapter 1- Rational Numbers**Chapter 2- Linear Equation in One Variable**Chapter 3- Understanding Quadrilaterals**Chapter 4- Practical Geometry**Chapter 5- Data Handling**Chapter 6- Squares and Square Roots**Chapter 7- Cubes and Cube Roots**Chapter 8- Comparing Quantities**Chapter 9- Algebraic Expressions and Identities**Chapter 10- Visualising Solid Shapes**Chapter 11- Mensuration**Chapter 12- Exponents and Powers**Chapter 13- Direct and Inverse Proportions**Chapter 14- Factorisation**Chapter 15- Introduction to Graphs**Chapter 16- Playing with Numbers*

*Chapter 1- Rational Numbers**Chapter 2- Linear Equation in One Variable**Chapter 3- Understanding Quadrilaterals**Chapter 4- Practical Geometry**Chapter 5- Data Handling**Chapter 6- Squares and Square Roots**Chapter 7- Cubes and Cube Roots**Chapter 8- Comparing Quantities**Chapter 9- Algebraic Expressions and Identities**Chapter 10- Visualising Solid Shapes**Chapter 11- Mensuration**Chapter 12- Exponents and Powers**Chapter 13- Direct and Inverse Proportions**Chapter 14- Factorisation**Chapter 15- Introduction to Graphs**Chapter 16- Playing with Numbers*

*Chapter 1- Rational Numbers**Chapter 2- Linear Equation in One Variable**Chapter 3- Understanding Quadrilaterals**Chapter 4- Practical Geometry**Chapter 5- Data Handling**Chapter 6- Squares and Square Roots**Chapter 7- Cubes and Cube Roots**Chapter 8- Comparing Quantities**Chapter 9- Algebraic Expressions and Identities**Chapter 10- Visualising Solid Shapes**Chapter 11- Mensuration**Chapter 12- Exponents and Powers**Chapter 13- Direct and Inverse Proportions**Chapter 14- Factorisation**Chapter 15- Introduction to Graphs**Chapter 16- Playing with Numbers*

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