# Introduction to bearings

##### Intros

###### Lessons

##### Examples

###### Lessons

**Locating an Object Using Different Types of Bearings**Given the following diagram:

Specify the direction as a:

**Graphing Different Bearings**Draw a suitable diagram for each of the following bearings:

**Conversion Between Different Types of Bearings**Convert

##### Practice

###### Free to Join!

#### Easily See Your Progress

We track the progress you've made on a topic so you know what you've done. From the course view you can easily see what topics have what and the progress you've made on them. Fill the rings to completely master that section or mouse over the icon to see more details.#### Make Use of Our Learning Aids

#### Earn Achievements as You Learn

Make the most of your time as you use StudyPug to help you achieve your goals. Earn fun little badges the more you watch, practice, and use our service.#### Create and Customize Your Avatar

Play with our fun little avatar builder to create and customize your own avatar on StudyPug. Choose your face, eye colour, hair colour and style, and background. Unlock more options the more you use StudyPug.

###### Topic Notes

## Introduction to Bearings

Bearings in mathematics are a crucial concept used to describe directions and angles relative to a fixed point, typically north. This system is essential in navigation, surveying, and various real-world applications. In daily life, bearings help us understand maps, give directions, and navigate using compasses or GPS devices. The bearing meaning in math extends beyond simple compass directions, incorporating precise angular measurements. Understanding bearings is vital for pilots, sailors, hikers, and anyone involved in outdoor activities or transportation. To grasp this concept fully, an introduction video can be incredibly beneficial. Such a video typically demonstrates how to measure and calculate bearings, explains their relationship to angles and compass points, and provides practical examples. By watching an introductory video, learners can visualize the concept, making it easier to comprehend and apply in both mathematical problems and real-world scenarios. This foundation is crucial for further studies in geometry, trigonometry, and navigation.

## Standard Compass Bearings

Standard compass bearings are an essential concept in navigation and mathematics, providing a precise way to describe directions. To understand bearings, we must first familiarize ourselves with the four cardinal points: North (N), East (E), South (S), and West (W). These form the foundation of the compass rose, a fundamental tool in navigation.

The four cardinal points are just the beginning. The compass is further divided into 16 standard compass bearings, which offer more precise directional information. These include the four cardinal points, four intercardinal (or ordinal) points, and eight secondary intercardinal points. The intercardinal points are Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW), and Northwest (NW). The secondary intercardinal points include North-Northeast (NNE), East-Northeast (ENE), East-Southeast (ESE), South-Southeast (SSE), South-Southwest (SSW), West-Southwest (WSW), West-Northwest (WNW), and North-Northwest (NNW).

In mathematics and navigation, bearings are always measured clockwise from North. This is a crucial point to remember when working with bearings. For example, East is at a bearing of 90°, South at 180°, and West at 270°. This system allows for precise measurement of any direction on the compass.

To express directions between these points, we use degrees. A full circle is 360°, so each of the 16 standard compass bearings is 22.5° apart (360° ÷ 16 = 22.5°). Here's a breakdown of the bearings for each point:

- North: 000° or 360°
- NNE: 022.5°
- NE: 045°
- ENE: 067.5°
- East: 090°
- ESE: 112.5°
- SE: 135°
- SSE: 157.5°
- South: 180°
- SSW: 202.5°
- SW: 225°
- WSW: 247.5°
- West: 270°
- WNW: 292.5°
- NW: 315°
- NNW: 337.5°

When working with bearings in math, it's common to see problems that ask for the bearing of one point from another. To solve these, imagine standing at the first point and facing North. Then, measure the angle clockwise to the direction of the second point. This angle is the bearing.

For example, if you're asked to find the bearing of a point that is directly Southeast of your position, you would measure 135° clockwise from North. Similarly, a point that is West-Southwest would be at a bearing of 247.5°.

It's important to note that bearings are always expressed using three digits. So, a bearing of 45° would be written as 045°. This convention helps avoid confusion and ensures consistency in navigation and mathematical calculations.

Bearings can also be used to describe directions that don't fall exactly on one of the 16 standard points. For instance, a bearing of 163° would fall between SSE (157.5°) and S (180°), but closer to SSE.

Understanding standard compass bearings is crucial in various fields, including navigation, surveying, and mathematics. In navigation, bearings help sailors and pilots plot courses and determine their position relative to landmarks. In surveying, bearings are used to accurately map land and determine property boundaries. In mathematics, bearings problems often involve trigonometry and can help students develop spatial reasoning skills.

To visualize bearings, it's helpful to draw diagrams. Start with a

## Compass Bearings

Compass bearings are an essential concept in mathematics, particularly in trigonometry and navigation. They provide a precise way to describe directions and are crucial for various applications, from orienteering to surveying. Understanding compass bearings is fundamental for anyone studying bearings in math or working with directional measurements.

A compass bearing, also known as a true bearing, is the angle between the direction of an object and true north, measured clockwise. This differs from standard compass bearings, which use magnetic north as a reference point. The distinction is important because magnetic north and true north are not always aligned, leading to potential discrepancies in navigation.

In mathematics, bearings are typically expressed as degrees east or west of north or south. This system, known as the three-figure bearing system, provides a clear and unambiguous way to describe directions. Here's how it works:

- 000° represents true north
- 090° represents due east
- 180° represents due south
- 270° represents due west

To read and write compass bearings, follow these steps:

- Start from north (000°) and measure clockwise.
- Express the angle as a three-digit number, including leading zeros if necessary.
- Always use degrees (°) after the number.

For example:

- 045° is northeast
- 135° is southeast
- 225° is southwest
- 315° is northwest

In bearings trigonometry, these angles are crucial for solving problems involving distances and directions. They form the basis for more complex calculations in navigation and surveying.

To reinforce your understanding of compass bearings, try these practice problems:

- What is the bearing of a point that is directly east of your position?
- If you travel on a bearing of 225°, in which direction are you heading?
- What is the bearing of a point that is halfway between north and west?
- Convert these cardinal directions to bearings: a) South b) Northeast c) West-southwest

Answers:

- 090°
- Southwest
- 315°
- a) 180° b) 045° c) 247.5°

Understanding what bearing is in math extends beyond simple directional measurements. In more advanced applications, bearings are used in conjunction with distances to determine positions, calculate routes, and solve complex navigational problems. This is where bearings in trigonometry become particularly important, as they allow for the calculation of distances and positions using trigonometric functions.

For instance, if you know the bearing and distance to two different points from your position, you can use trigonometry to calculate your exact location. This principle is the basis for triangulation, a technique used in GPS systems, surveying, and even in some forms of emergency location services.

As you delve deeper into bearings in math, you'll encounter more complex problems involving multiple bearings, distances, and even three-dimensional space. These concepts form the foundation for advanced navigation, aerospace engineering, and geospatial analysis.

Remember, proficiency in compass bearings comes with practice. Regularly working with bearings, solving problems, and applying the concepts to real-world scenarios will help solidify your understanding. Whether you're studying for a math exam or preparing for a career in navigation or surveying, mastering compass bearings is a valuable skill that opens up a world of possibilities in mathematics and beyond.

## True Bearings

True bearings, a fundamental concept in bearing math, are an essential tool for navigation and orientation. These precise measurements provide a standardized way to describe directions relative to true north. Understanding true bearings is crucial for various fields, including surveying, navigation, and cartography.

The key principle of true bearings is that angles are always measured clockwise from true north. This consistent reference point ensures accuracy and eliminates confusion when communicating directions. True north, unlike magnetic north, is fixed and aligned with the Earth's rotational axis, making it a reliable baseline for measurements.

In bearing maths, true bearings are typically expressed using a three-digit notation system. This system provides a clear and unambiguous way to represent directions. The notation ranges from 000° to 359°, with each degree representing a unique direction. For example:

- 000° represents true north
- 090° indicates due east
- 180° signifies true south
- 270° denotes due west

To distinguish true bearings from other types of bearings, the symbol 'T' is often appended to the measurement. For instance, a true bearing of 045° might be written as 045°T. This notation helps prevent confusion with magnetic bearings or grid bearings, which may differ slightly due to magnetic variation or grid convergence.

Converting between compass bearings and true bearings is a common task in bearings math. Compass bearings, which use cardinal and intercardinal directions, can be translated into true bearings as follows:

- North (N) = 000°T
- Northeast (NE) = 045°T
- East (E) = 090°T
- Southeast (SE) = 135°T
- South (S) = 180°T
- Southwest (SW) = 225°T
- West (W) = 270°T
- Northwest (NW) = 315°T

For more precise compass bearings, such as N30°E, the conversion process involves simple calculations. In this case, N30°E would translate to a true bearing of 030°T. Similarly, S45°W would convert to 225°T in the true bearing system.

Visual representations are invaluable for understanding true bearings. Imagine a circle with true north at the top (000°). As you move clockwise around this circle, the degrees increase. East is at 090°, south at 180°, and west at 270°. This circular diagram, often called a bearing circle or compass rose, is a fundamental tool in bearing maths.

When working with true bearings, it's important to remember that they provide a precise way to describe direction, independent of one's current position. This makes them particularly useful for long-distance navigation and mapping. For example, an aircraft pilot might use true bearings to plot a course over vast distances, ensuring accurate navigation regardless of changing magnetic fields.

In practical applications, true bearings are often used in conjunction with distances to define locations. This combination of direction and distance forms the basis of many coordinate systems and mapping techniques. For instance, in land surveying, property boundaries might be described using a series of true bearings and distances, providing a legally precise definition of the property's extent.

Understanding and working with true bearings is a crucial skill in many fields. From maritime navigation to urban planning, the ability to accurately determine and communicate directions is essential. As technology advances, digital compasses and GPS systems often incorporate true bearing calculations, making this aspect of bearing maths more accessible to a wider audience.

In conclusion, true bearings represent a standardized, accurate method for describing directions in bearing math. By always measuring clockwise from true north and using a three-digit notation system, true bearings provide a clear and unambiguous way to communicate orientation. Whether you're navigating at sea, surveying lan

## Practical Applications of Bearings

Bearings math plays a crucial role in various real-world applications, particularly in navigation, surveying, and GPS systems. Understanding bearings maths is essential for professionals and enthusiasts alike who rely on accurate direction and positioning. In this section, we'll explore how bearings in math are utilized across different fields and professions.

In navigation, bearings are fundamental for determining direction and plotting courses. Sailors, for instance, use bearings to chart their path across open waters. By taking bearings from known landmarks or celestial bodies, they can triangulate their position and maintain their intended route. Similarly, pilots rely heavily on bearings math to navigate aircraft. They use bearings to calculate headings, estimate wind drift, and ensure they stay on course during long flights.

Surveyors employ bearings extensively in their work to measure and map land. They use specialized equipment like theodolites to measure precise angles and bearings between points on the Earth's surface. This information is crucial for creating accurate maps, establishing property boundaries, and planning construction projects. The ability to calculate and interpret bearings is a core skill in the surveying profession.

The advent of GPS technology has revolutionized how we use bearings in everyday life. GPS systems constantly calculate bearings to determine our position and provide navigation instructions. When you use a smartphone app for directions, it's using bearings math to guide you. The system calculates the bearing from your current position to your destination and updates it in real-time as you move.

Map reading and route planning also heavily rely on bearings. Hikers and outdoor enthusiasts use compasses and maps to navigate wilderness areas. They take bearings from prominent landmarks to pinpoint their location on a map and plan their route. Understanding how to read and follow bearings on a map is an essential skill for safe and effective wilderness navigation.

In the military, bearings are critical for tactical operations and artillery. Soldiers use bearings to communicate target locations, plan movements, and coordinate attacks. Artillery units rely on precise bearing calculations to aim their weapons accurately over long distances.

Urban planners and architects also utilize bearings in their work. When designing cities or buildings, they consider the bearing of the sun throughout the day and year to optimize natural lighting and energy efficiency. This application of bearings math helps create more sustainable and comfortable living spaces.

Search and rescue operations heavily depend on bearings for locating missing persons or vessels. Rescue teams use last known positions and potential bearings to create search patterns and efficiently cover large areas. The ability to quickly and accurately calculate bearings can be life-saving in these situations.

Even in everyday activities, bearings math finds applications. Golfers use bearings to aim their shots, considering factors like wind direction. Photographers use bearings to plan the best angles for capturing landscapes, especially when timing shots with sunrise or sunset.

In conclusion, bearings math is a versatile and essential tool across numerous fields. From the high-stakes environments of aviation and maritime navigation to the precise work of surveyors and the everyday use in GPS systems, bearings provide a fundamental framework for understanding and navigating our world. Whether you're a professional pilot charting a course across continents or a hiker exploring local trails, mastering the concepts of bearings in math enhances your ability to navigate and understand spatial relationships. As technology continues to advance, the applications of bearings maths are likely to expand, making it an increasingly valuable skill in our interconnected and location-aware world.

## Solving Bearing Problems

Bearings are an essential concept in mathematics and navigation, used to describe directions relative to true north. In this comprehensive guide, we'll explore how to solve various bearing problems step-by-step, including finding bearings between points, calculating distances, and working with back bearings.

### 1. Understanding Bearings

Bearings in math are measured clockwise from true north, expressed as three-digit numbers from 000° to 359°. For example, 090° is east, 180° is south, 270° is west, and 360° (or 000°) is north.

### 2. Finding Bearings Between Two Points

To find the bearing from point A to point B:

- Draw a north line from point A
- Draw a line from A to B
- Measure the angle clockwise from north to the line AB

Example: If B is 3 km east and 4 km north of A, the bearing is 090° - tan^{-1}(4/3) = 053°

### 3. Calculating Distances Using Bearings

When given a bearing and one distance component, use trigonometry to find the other:

- North-South distance = Total distance × cos(bearing)
- East-West distance = Total distance × sin(bearing)

Example: A ship sails 10 km on a bearing of 030°. The northward distance is 10 × cos(030°) = 8.66 km, and the eastward distance is 10 × sin(030°) = 5 km.

### 4. Working with Back Bearings

A back bearing is the reverse direction, found by adding or subtracting 180° from the original bearing:

- If original bearing < 180°, add 180°
- If original bearing 180°, subtract 180°

Example: The back bearing of 045° is 225°, and the back bearing of 270° is 090°.

### 5. Solving Complex Bearing Problems

For more complex scenarios involving multiple bearings or distances:

- Draw a diagram representing the situation
- Break down the problem into north-south and east-west components
- Use trigonometry to solve for unknown values

Example: A hiker walks 5 km on a bearing of 060°, then 3 km on a bearing of 150°. To find the direct distance and bearing back to the starting point:

- Calculate total northward distance: 5cos(060°) + 3cos(150°) = 0.1 km south
- Calculate total eastward distance: 5sin(060°) + 3sin(150°) = 5.8 km east
- Direct distance = (0.1² + 5.8²) = 5.8 km
- Bearing back = 180° + tan
^{-1}(5.8/0.1) 269°

### Practice Problems

1. Find the bearing from A to B if B is 8 km west and 6 km south of A.

2. A plane flies 200 km on a bearing of 135°. How far east and south has it traveled?

3. What is the back bearing of 315°?

## Conclusion

In this comprehensive guide to bearing math, we've explored the fundamental concepts and practical applications of bearings in mathematics. Understanding bearings is crucial for navigation, surveying, and various real-world scenarios. We've covered key points including the definition of bearings, how to measure and express them, and solving bearing problems using trigonometry. The importance of bearings in maths extends beyond the classroom, playing a vital role in fields like geography, engineering, and aviation. To reinforce your understanding, we encourage you to practice bearing problems regularly and refer back to the introductory video for visual explanations. Mastering bearings will enhance your spatial reasoning and problem-solving skills. For those eager to delve deeper into this topic, explore advanced bearing calculations and their applications in GPS technology and maritime navigation. Remember, proficiency in bearing math opens doors to exciting career opportunities in various industries. Keep practicing and exploring the fascinating world of bearings!

### Introduction to Bearings

__Introduction to bearings__ Standard compass bearings

#### Step 1: Understanding the Importance of Bearings

In this section, we want to give you an introduction to bearings because it's just so useful in our daily lives. It doesn't matter if you're in the ocean or on land. If you're lost, being able to do bearings might actually save your life. That's why we want to talk about this topic. So, let's begin with this lesson.

#### Step 2: Definition of Bearings

To start off, we need to know the definition of bearings. Bearings are used to locate objects or the direction of a journey on a 2D plane. That means you want to be able to pinpoint yourself on a map using bearings.

#### Step 3: Types of Bearings

Now, to do so, there are actually three ways. Three types of bearings. The first type is the standard compass bearing. And here's the example. We don't worry about this. It might be a bit overwhelming, but we will go over it in details in just a moment. Second one is compass bearings. And last one is the true bearings. So, let's go over these one by one and give you an example and explain how to find the corresponding bearings.

#### Step 4: Standard Compass Bearings

First one, obviously, is the standard compass bearings. The word standard here has a meaning. You know, when you pull a compass, how many arrows do you see? You see four arrows in general, right? Those are the standard directions. So, these are the four standard directions you see on the compass. And they are the E, which is the east, obviously. S is south. West is W. And the N is north. These are the four most general standard compass bearings you see on a compass. So, these four directions are called the cardinal points, okay? This is a specific name for these four directions.

#### Step 5: Intermediate Directions

Now, here comes a question. Even though these are the most general form, what's going to happen if we have a direction in between these directions? For example, if I have a direction pointing in between the north and the east, right in the middle, okay? What do we do? Over here, whenever we're solving for degrees, we always start counting on the north, right? From the north, that is the zero degrees. And we want to go clockwise, right? We go clockwise, like that. So, if north is zero degrees, then east, in that case, will be 90 degrees, because that is the right angle, right? All right, midway from zero to 90, okay? That midpoint over here, what is the degree of that? Well, we just have to divide 90 by 2. 90 divided by 2, it's 45. That means this angle over here, it's 45 degrees.

#### Step 6: Expressing Intermediate Directions

Okay, so let me rephrase the question. This midpoint over here would just be 45 degrees, but how do we express it using these alphabets? The north is N, east is E, so on and so forth. Well, what we can do is that we can combine these two directions into one. So, we use the north or the south as reference, and we take into account the east and west to find the angle. So, for example, this 45 degrees, we will use the north because it's closer to the north than the south, right? So, use north as a reference, and then from north, you go towards east, right? So, we will have northeast. So, this angle, according to this diagram, 45 degrees right here, it's denoted by northeast. It's called northeast, okay?

#### Step 7: Further Intermediate Directions

So, that's what you do if you were to find an angle in between these four cardinal points, okay? So, using the same logic, we'll be able to find the southeast, southwest, and northwest, right? These extra four points on top of the four cardinal points. Now, one step forward, one step ahead. What happens if I have an arrow in between the north and the northeast, okay? Right in the middle. So, you see, from northeast, that's 45 degrees, okay? So, if I have an arrow in between them, so that means we are doing 45 degrees divided by 2. 45 divided by 2, that will give us 22.5 degrees. So, this angle over here, it's actually 22.5 degrees.

#### Step 8: Denoting Further Intermediate Directions

So, we want to denote 22.5 degrees using these standard compass bearings, all right? So, again, what we can do is that we can use either north or south as our reference, and then we point towards the northeast or northwest. So, for example, for NE, northeast, start from the north, okay? If it's closer to the north than the south, it wouldn't make sense if you say south, northeast, right? It's way too far from there. So, you will say north, northeast. So, NNE, so that will be NNE for 22.5. It's NNE, north, northeast, okay? So, that is denoted on this diagram over here, all right?

#### Step 9: Using East and West as Reference

However, the difference to find these in-between angles from here is that we don't just use the north and the south. We will use the east and the west as reference angles as well, okay? So, for example, if I want to find an angle right in between over here, it wouldn't make sense to use north or south, right? Because they are still way too far from this angle. So, the closest reference angle in this case, sorry, reference bearing will be the east, all right? East is just right next to it, right? So, what we will do is that we will say east, northeast. Because east, you point, switch it a bit towards the northeast. So, it's ENE, all right? ENE over here, all right?

#### Step 10: Conclusion

So, using the same idea, we will be able to find all these in-between standard bearings. These ones, all right? And all in all, these will be the 16 standard compass bearings you can find, all right? 16 of them in total. So, let me make a quick conclusion. Starting off, we will have four basic standard compass bearings which have a special name. They're called the cardinal points. To find the in-between numbers, you will first use the north or south as the mid reference angles. To find the in-betweens, all right? So, to get the northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest. However, if you want to further find the in-between points, you would not only use north and south, but also east and west to find in-between points. So, you get 16 standard compass bearings in all, all right?

### FAQs

Here are some frequently asked questions about bearings in mathematics:

#### 1. How do you calculate bearings?

To calculate bearings, follow these steps:

- Draw a north line from your starting point.
- Measure the angle clockwise from the north line to your direction of travel.
- Express this angle as a three-digit number of degrees, e.g., 047° or 275°.

#### 2. What are the three rules of bearings?

The three main rules for bearings are:

- Always measure clockwise from north.
- Always write bearings as three-digit numbers (e.g., 005° not 5°).
- Always state the direction as an angle between 000° and 359°.

#### 3. What is the bearing from A to B?

To find the bearing from A to B:

- Draw a north line from point A.
- Draw a line from A to B.
- Measure the clockwise angle from the north line to line AB.
- Express this angle as a three-digit bearing.

#### 4. How do you find true bearing in math?

True bearing is measured from true north, not magnetic north. To find it:

- Determine the direction to your target.
- Measure the clockwise angle from true north to this direction.
- Express the angle as a three-digit number of degrees.

#### 5. What is a bearing example?

An example of a bearing is 045°, which means 45 degrees clockwise from north (northeast). Another example is 270°, which represents due west. Bearings are always measured clockwise from north and expressed as three-digit numbers between 000° and 359°.

### Prerequisite Topics

Understanding the fundamentals is crucial when delving into the world of "Introduction to bearings." While there are no specific prerequisite topics listed for this subject, it's important to recognize that a solid foundation in basic mechanical engineering concepts can greatly enhance your comprehension of bearings and their applications.

Bearings are essential components in various mechanical systems, and having a grasp of general physics principles, such as friction, force, and motion, can provide valuable context. These fundamental concepts form the backbone of understanding how bearings function and why they are so important in machinery and equipment.

Additionally, familiarity with materials science can be beneficial when studying bearings. Different types of bearings are made from various materials, each with its own properties and applications. Understanding the characteristics of metals, plastics, and ceramics used in bearing construction can help you appreciate the design choices and performance capabilities of different bearing types.

Basic knowledge of mechanical design principles can also prove useful when learning about bearings. This includes understanding concepts like load distribution, stress analysis, and rotational dynamics. These principles play a crucial role in bearing selection, installation, and maintenance.

While not strictly prerequisites, having some background in manufacturing processes and quality control can provide valuable insights into how bearings are produced and tested. This knowledge can help you appreciate the precision and care that goes into creating reliable bearings for various applications.

Lastly, a general understanding of lubrication principles can be advantageous when studying bearings. Many bearings rely on proper lubrication to function effectively and efficiently. Knowing the basics of lubricant types, properties, and application methods can enhance your comprehension of bearing maintenance and longevity.

Although there are no specific prerequisite topics listed for "Introduction to bearings," approaching the subject with a well-rounded understanding of these related areas can significantly enhance your learning experience. It's important to remember that learning is a continuous process, and you can always revisit and strengthen your knowledge of these foundational concepts as you progress in your study of bearings.

As you embark on your journey to understand bearings, keep in mind that curiosity and a willingness to explore related fields can greatly enrich your learning experience. Don't hesitate to dive into supplementary materials or seek out additional resources to build a strong foundation for your study of bearings and their fascinating role in the world of mechanical engineering.

3 main types of bearings:

- Standard compass bearings

- Compass bearings

- True bearings

Cardinal Points: the 4 basic standard bearings (East, South, West, North)

Compass bearings: the number of degrees east or west of north of south.

True bearings:

- Angle measured clockwise to the bearing line from the north

- The symbol T is to indicate that it is true bearing, but sometimes it is omitted

- For bearings less than 100°, use 3 digits with the first digit being a 0. (e.g. 045°T)

###### Basic Concepts

remaining today

remaining today