Instead of Cartesian coordinates, we use spherical coordinates for situations you will see in future sections.
For now, we will just learn how to convert from 3D Cartesians coordinates to 3D spherical coordinates, and vice versa. In other words,
Suppose we have the following graph:
From the graph, we can obtain the following equations which will be useful for converting spherical to cartesian, or vice versa:
Using the equations from last sections, we can also obtain more equations: