Newton’s Second Law:
Using second order differential equations we are able to analyze a circuit consisting of a battery, a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor in series. Let us denote as the charge on the capacitor at time . The current is the rate of change of with respect to . So the current of the system is equal to
Kirchhoff’s Law states that the sum of all voltage drops across a system must equal the supplied charge:
Where is the voltage drop across the inductor, is the voltage drop across the resistor, is the voltage drop across the capacitor, and is the voltage supplied by the battery (or other electrical force).
According to Faraday’s Law the voltage drop across an inductor is equal to the instantaneous rate of change of current times an inductance constant, denoted by (measured in henry’s).
From Ohm’s Law the voltage drop across a resistor is equal to the resistance (measured in ohms) times the current:
And the voltage drop across a capacitor is proportional to the electrical charge of the capacitor times a constant of capacitance (measured in farads).
And let us denote the voltage from the battery as some sort of function with respect to time
So inputting all the previously found information into Kirchhoff’s Law:
Which will become,
And we know that . So the equation becomes,
Which can also be written as
Which is a second order, constant coefficient, non-homogeneous differential equation.