Integration using trigonometric identities  Integration Techniques
Integration using trigonometric identities
In this section, we will take a look at several methods for integrating trigonometric functions. All methods require us to use USubstitution and substituting with trigonometric identities. In addition, the trigonometric functions we are dealing with are products of sine and cosine with powers. There are a total of 3 cases. The first case is when the power of cosine is odd. The second case is when the power of sine is odd. Lastly, the third case is when both the powers of sine and cosine are even.
Lessons
Notes:
Prerequisite: * Trigonometry –“Trigonometric Identities”
Note: Strategy for evaluating $\int \sin^{\blacksquare}x$ $\cos^{\blacksquare}x$ $dx$
Case 1: $\int \sin^{\blacksquare}x$ $\cos^{odd}x$ $dx$
1. strip out one $cosine$ factor
2. express the remaining $cosine$ factors in terms of $sine$ using the Pythagorean Identity: $\cos^2x=1\sin^2x$
3. substitute $u=\sin x$
Case 2: $\int \sin^{odd}x$ $\cos^{\blacksquare}x$ $dx$
1. strip out one $sine$ factor
2. express the remaining $sine$ factors in terms of $cosine$ using the Pythagorean Identity: $\sin^2x=1\cos^2x$
3. substitute $u=\cos x$
Case 3: $\int \sin^{even}x$ $\cos^{even}x$ $dx$
1. use the halfangle identities: $\sin^2x=\frac{1}{2}(1\cos2x)$ $or$ $\cos^2x=\frac{1}{2}(1+\cos2x)$
2. if necessary, use the doubleangle identity: $\sin x$ $\cos x$ $=\frac{1}{2}\sin2x$

1.
Evaluate the integral (odd power of cosine).

b)
$\int \cos^5x$ $dx$

2.
Evaluate the integral (odd power of sine).

b)
$\int_{\frac{\pi}{6}}^{\frac{\pi}{2}} \sin^5x$ $\cos^3 x$ $dx$

c)
$\int \sin^3x$ $\sqrt{\cos x}$ $dx$

3.
Evaluate the integral (even powers of sine/cosine).

b)
$\int \cos^4x$ $dx$

c)
$\int \sin^4x$ $\cos^2 x$ $dx$