Application of reflected and refracted light

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Intros
Lessons
  1. Application of Reflected and Refracted Light
  2. Introduction to total internal reflection
  3. The condition of total internal reflection, critical angle
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Examples
Lessons
  1. Total Internal Reflection
    Calculate the critical angle of the following materials
    1. Glass with refractive index of 1.54
    2. Ice with refractive index of 1.31
    1. A beam of light is refracted by a type of glass as shown below
      Angle of incidence: 30°
      Angle of refraction: 22°
      Application of Reflected and Refracted Light

      1. Calculate the refractive index of this type of glass.
      2. Calculate the critical angle of the glass.
      1. A ray of light enters a glass prism with a refractive index of 1.50, as shown below;
        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light
        1. Explain what happens as the ray enters the prism
        2. Find the value of angle X
        3. Explains what happens as the ray reaches point O
        Topic Notes
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        In this lesson, we will learn:

        • The total internal reflection conditions
        • Solving problems on total internal reflation
        • Formation of Mirage
        • Dispersion of light
        • The use of optical fibers

        Notes:

        • Total Internal Reflection:

          Complete reflection, there is NO refraction
          It occurs under the following circumstances:

          1. The ray of light travels from a more optically dense medium to a less optically dense medium.
          2. The angle of incidence is greater than a certain limiting angle (the critical angle).

        • Critical Angle

          The incident angle that causes the refracted ray to lie right along the boundary of the substance, angle ฮธc\theta _{c}, is it unique to the substance.

          In other words;
          The measure of angle of incidence when angle refraction is 90ยฐ
          OR
          The measure of angle of incidence when the refracted ray grazes the boundary.

          < rr = 90° โ‡’ \Rightarrow <ii = < ฮธc\theta _{c} \qquad Reflection and Refractionย 

        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light

        • The angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle; the ray of light is totally reflected, No refraction

        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light

        • The angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle; the ray of light gets both reflected and refracted.

        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light

        • Effect of refraction and reflection: Mirage, Dispersion of light, and Optical fiber

        • Mirage:
          An optical effect that is seen above the hot road, the road looks like a pool or mirror due to the total internal reflection of light.
          The layers of air above the ground are colder and less dense
          Layers at the surface of the ground are hotter and denser
          As light travels from less dense to denser layer with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, it gets totally reflected, no refraction

        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light

        Dispersion of light: White light directed thorough a prism is dispersed into bands of different colors.
        Example: Rainbow, it is the dispersion of sun light through water droplets.
        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light

        • Optical Fiber: It is a long thin flexible sample of a transparent medium. Any light ray entering the optical fiber will remain trapped inside, even if the fiber is bent.
          The total internal reflection occurs.
          Light energy stays the same throughout the fibers.
        • Use of optical fibers
          1. Surgical tools to treat illness, without deterioration of image quality
          2. Telecommunication, to transfer video and audio information with no loss of signals.
        Application of Reflected and Refracted Light