# Mastering the Art of Mixing Acids and Bases Dive into the world of acid-base reactions! Understand neutralization, pH calculations, and real-world applications. Perfect for students seeking to excel in chemistry and related fields.

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Now Playing:Mixing strong acids and bases – Example 0a
Intros
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1. Reacting acids and bases
2. Moles: How much acid and base have reacted together?
3. Finding pH from neutralization reactions.
Examples
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1. Find the resultant pH of reaction mixtures of strong acids and bases.
1. What is the pH of the solution made when 75 mL of 0.2M sodium hydroxide, NaOH, and 100 mL of 0.1M hydrochloric acid, HCl, are reacted?

2. 175 mL of 0.08 M nitric acid, HNO3, was reacted with 120 mL of 0.1 M potassium hydroxide, KOH. What is the resultant pH?

Introduction to acid-base theory
Notes

In this lesson, we will learn:

• To apply mole calculations and limiting reagents to find the pH of reacting acid/base solutions.
• To apply expressions for pH and pOH to find the pH of acidic and basic resulting solutions.

Notes:

• We now know that strong acids produce H3O+ ions in solution that directly lower pH, while strong bases produce OH- in solution that directly raise pH. If a strong acid and base were combined in a solution, the result could be acidic, basic or neutral, depending on how much of the two were used. You can find the resulting pH by calculating the number of moles of substance being added using the equation:

moles (mol) = concentration (mol L-1) $*$ volume (L)

This can be done for both OH- and H3O+ ions to find the number of moles. Identify which of the two ionic species is the excess reagent, then subtract the moles of the other species from it. This is done because neutralization in solution will lead to their cancelling each other out in a 1:1 ratio:

H3O+ + OH- → 2H2O

Measuring pH can now be done with the remaining excess ions
• For H3O+ in excess, use the equation:

pH = -log[H3O+]

…To directly find pH.

• For OH- in excess, use the equation:

pOH = -log[OH-]

Now recall that pOH + pH = 14, re-arrange to find:

pH = 14 - pOH

…To find pH.
Concept

## Introduction to Mixing Strong Acids and Bases

Mixing strong acids and bases is a fundamental concept in chemistry, crucial for understanding various chemical reactions. Our introduction video provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, serving as an essential starting point for students and enthusiasts alike. When strong acids and strong bases are combined, a neutralization reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of water and a salt. This process is governed by the principles of stoichiometry and requires precise mole calculations to determine the quantities of reactants and products. The pH scale plays a vital role in these reactions, indicating the acidity or basicity of the solution. Understanding how to calculate and manipulate pH is key to predicting and controlling acid-base reactions. By mastering these concepts, students can gain valuable insights into chemical equilibrium, titration techniques, and buffer solutions, which have wide-ranging applications in industry, environmental science, and biochemistry.

Example

Reacting acids and bases
Moles: How much acid and base have reacted together?

#### Step 1: Introduction to Mixing Strong Acids and Bases

In this section, we will explore the result and calculations involved in mixing strong acids and bases. This process involves mole calculations, understanding limiting reagents, and applying expressions for pH. The objective is to determine the pH of a reacting acid-base mixture by applying these concepts.

#### Step 2: Understanding Mole Calculations

To find the pH of a solution where a strong acid and base are reacting together, it is essential to know the amount of each substance involved. This requires understanding mole calculations. The number of moles is calculated using the formula:

Moles = Concentration (M) × Volume (L)

Here, concentration is given in moles per liter (M), and volume is in liters. By multiplying these two values, we can determine the number of moles of the substance.

#### Step 3: Neutralization Reaction

When a strong acid and base react together, they undergo a neutralization reaction. This reaction can be represented as:

H3O+ + OH- 2H2O

In this reaction, hydronium ions (H3O+) from the acid react with hydroxide ions (OH-) from the base to form water. The reaction occurs in a 1:1 molar ratio, meaning one mole of H3O+ reacts with one mole of OH- to produce two moles of water.

#### Step 4: Determining the Limiting Reagent

To find out how much acid and base have reacted together, we need to determine the limiting reagent. The limiting reagent is the substance that is completely consumed in the reaction, limiting the amount of product formed. The other substance is the excess reagent, which will have some amount left over after the reaction.

For example, if we have 0.5 moles of base and 0.4 moles of acid, the acid is the limiting reagent because it will be completely consumed by the base. After the reaction, we will have 0.1 moles of base left over (0.5 moles base - 0.4 moles acid = 0.1 moles base).

#### Step 5: Calculating the Resultant pH

Once we know the amount of the excess reagent left over, we can calculate the resultant pH of the solution. The pH is determined by the concentration of H3O+ ions in the solution. The formula for pH is:

pH = -log(H3O+)

If we have an excess of base, we need to calculate the pOH first and then convert it to pH. The formula for pOH is:

pOH = -log(OH-)

And the relationship between pH and pOH is:

pH + pOH = 14

Using these formulas, we can determine the pH of the resultant solution after the reaction between the strong acid and base.

#### Step 6: Example Calculation

Let's consider an example where we have 0.5 moles of base and 0.4 moles of acid. After the reaction, we have 0.1 moles of base left over. To find the pOH, we use the formula:

pOH = -log(0.1)

Once we have the pOH, we can find the pH using the relationship:

pH = 14 - pOH

This will give us the pH of the resultant solution.

#### Step 7: Conclusion

In conclusion, to determine how much acid and base have reacted together, we need to perform mole calculations, identify the limiting reagent, and calculate the resultant pH. By understanding these steps and applying the relevant formulas, we can accurately determine the pH of a solution resulting from the reaction of strong acids and bases.

FAQs

1. What happens when you mix an acid and a base together?
When an acid and a base are mixed, a neutralization reaction occurs. The acid's hydrogen ions (H+) combine with the base's hydroxide ions (OH-) to form water (H2O). Additionally, the remaining ions from the acid and base form a salt. This reaction typically releases heat, making it exothermic.

2. Does mixing an acid and base cause an explosion?
Generally, mixing an acid and a base does not cause an explosion. However, the reaction can be vigorous, especially with concentrated solutions, potentially causing splattering or rapid heat release. It's crucial to add acid to water (never the reverse) and to mix solutions carefully to avoid dangerous situations.

3. What is the mixing of an acid and base called?
The mixing of an acid and a base is called a neutralization reaction. This process results in the formation of water and a salt, effectively neutralizing the acidic and basic properties of the original substances.

4. How is mixing acid and base a chemical change?
Mixing an acid and a base is a chemical change because it results in the formation of new substances. The original acid and base react to produce water and a salt, which have different chemical properties from the reactants. This process involves breaking and forming chemical bonds, a hallmark of chemical changes.

5. What factors affect the pH of the resulting solution when mixing acids and bases?
Several factors affect the pH of the resulting solution when mixing acids and bases:

• The strength of the acid and base
• The concentration of the reactants
• The relative amounts (moles) of acid and base mixed
• The temperature of the reaction
• The presence of any buffers in the solution
These factors determine whether the final solution will be acidic, basic, or neutral.

Prerequisites

Understanding the fundamentals of chemistry is crucial when delving into more complex topics like mixing strong acids and bases. Two key prerequisite topics that are essential for mastering this subject are acid-base titration and conjugate acids and bases. These concepts provide the foundation for comprehending the intricate reactions that occur when strong acids and bases are combined.

Acid-base titration techniques are fundamental to understanding the mixing of strong acids and bases. This process involves the controlled addition of a solution with a known concentration to another solution with an unknown concentration until the reaction reaches its endpoint. By mastering acid-base titration, students gain practical skills in measuring and analyzing the strength of acids and bases, which is crucial when working with strong acids and bases in various chemical processes.

Moreover, handling concentrated acids and bases safely and effectively requires a solid understanding of conjugate acids and bases. This concept explores the relationship between acids and bases and their corresponding conjugate pairs. When mixing strong acids and bases, it's essential to recognize how these substances interact and the resulting products formed. Knowledge of conjugate acids and bases helps predict the behavior of strong acids and bases in solution and the pH changes that occur during their reactions.

By grasping these prerequisite topics, students develop a strong foundation for exploring the more advanced concept of mixing strong acids and bases. The principles learned in acid-base titration, such as stoichiometry and neutralization reactions, directly apply to understanding the quantitative aspects of mixing strong acids and bases. Similarly, the knowledge of conjugate acids and bases aids in predicting the products formed and the extent of the reactions when strong acids and bases are combined.

Furthermore, these prerequisite topics enhance safety awareness when working with strong acids and bases. Acid-base titration techniques teach students proper handling and measurement of acidic and basic solutions, while understanding conjugate acids and bases helps in recognizing the potential hazards associated with mixing strong acids and bases.

In conclusion, mastering the prerequisite topics of acid-base titration and conjugate acids and bases is crucial for students aiming to understand the complexities of mixing strong acids and bases. These foundational concepts provide the necessary knowledge and skills to safely and effectively work with these powerful chemical substances, paving the way for advanced studies in chemistry and related fields.