# Changes in price & quantity

##### Intros
###### Lessons
1. Changes in Price & Quantity Overview:
2. Changes in Demand
• Case 1: Increase in Demand
• Case 2: Decrease in Demand
3. Changes in Supply
• Case 1: Increase in Supply
• Case 2: Decrease in Supply
4. Changes in Both Demand and Supply
• Case 1: Increase in Demand and Supply
• Case 2: Decrease in Demand and Supply
• Case 3: Increase in Demand, Decrease in Supply
• Case 4: Decrease in Demand, Increase in Supply
##### Examples
###### Lessons
1. Understanding Changes in Demand
You know that ice cream will be expensive in the future. Explain what happens to the demand curve, and what happens to the equilibrium price and quantity.
1. Suppose there is a demand for an inferior good, and recently your income has increased. Explain what happens to the demand curve, and what happens to the equilibrium price and quantity.
1. Understanding Changes in Supply
Technology has been developed such that it cuts production costs to monitors. Explain what happens to the supply curve, and what happens to the equilibrium price and quantity.
1. A natural disaster has happened, and the production of water bottles has been slowed. Explain what happens to the supply curve, and what happens to the equilibrium price and quantity.
1. Understanding Changes in Both Demand and Supply
Suppose a recent pollution has damaged most of you water in town. In addition, the summer season causes consumers to buy more water. The change in the water needed by consumers is more than the amount of water damaged. Explain what happens to both the demand and supply curve, and what happens to the equilibrium price and quantity.
1. The demand for chocolate is P = 30 - $2Q_{d}$, and the supply for ice cream is $Q_{s}$ = 10 + 2P
1. Find the equilibrium price and quantity.
2. If the demand for chocolate increases by 10, and the supply increases by 5, what is the new equilibrium price and quantity?
3. Did the equilibrium price and quantity increase or decrease?

## Introduction: Understanding Changes in Price and Quantity

Understanding changes in equilibrium price and quantity is crucial for grasping the dynamics of supply and demand in economics. These concepts form the foundation for analyzing market behavior and predicting outcomes in various economic scenarios. The introduction video serves as a valuable resource, offering a clear and concise explanation of how shifts in supply or demand curves can lead to changes in both equilibrium price and quantity. By exploring these fundamental principles, students and professionals alike can develop a deeper understanding of market forces and their impacts. The video highlights key factors that influence changes in price and quantity, such as external shocks, government policies, or technological advancements. Mastering these concepts enables individuals to make informed decisions in business, policy-making, and personal finance. As we delve deeper into this topic, we'll examine specific examples and applications of these principles in real-world situations, further solidifying your understanding of market equilibrium examples.

## Market Equilibrium and Shifts in Demand

Market equilibrium is a fundamental concept in economics that describes the point where supply and demand intersect, creating a balance in the market. At this equilibrium point, the quantity of goods or services that producers are willing to supply matches the quantity that consumers are willing to buy at a specific price. Understanding market equilibrium and how shifts in demand affect it is crucial for businesses, policymakers, and consumers alike.

The equilibrium price and quantity are determined by the interaction of supply and demand curves on a graph. The demand curve slopes downward, indicating that as prices decrease, consumers are willing to buy more of a product. Conversely, the supply curve slopes upward, showing that as prices increase, producers are willing to supply more. The point where these two curves intersect represents the market equilibrium.

Shifts in demand can significantly impact the market equilibrium, leading to changes in both the equilibrium price and quantity. A shift in demand occurs when factors other than price influence consumers' willingness to purchase a good or service. These factors can include changes in income, preferences, population, or expectations about future prices.

When demand increases, the demand curve shifts to the right. This shift results in a new equilibrium point with both a higher price and a higher quantity. For example, if a new health study reveals the benefits of consuming a particular fruit, the demand for that fruit may increase. As a result, consumers are willing to buy more of the fruit at every price point, shifting the demand curve to the right. This shift leads to a new equilibrium with a higher price and a larger quantity sold in the market.

Conversely, when demand decreases, the demand curve shifts to the left. This shift creates a new equilibrium point with both a lower price and a lower quantity. An example of this could be a decrease in demand for physical books due to the rising popularity of e-books. As fewer people want to purchase physical books, the demand curve shifts left, resulting in a lower equilibrium price and fewer books sold.

It's important to note that the magnitude of the price and quantity changes depends on the elasticity of supply and demand. If supply is relatively inelastic (less responsive to price changes), a shift in demand will result in a larger change in price and a smaller change in quantity. If supply is more elastic, the opposite occurs, with a smaller price change and a larger quantity change.

The graphs shown in the video illustrate these concepts visually. The initial equilibrium is typically shown as the intersection of the original supply and demand curves, labeled as E1. When demand increases, a new demand curve (D2) is drawn to the right of the original curve (D1). The new equilibrium point (E2) is found where D2 intersects the supply curve, showing both a higher price and quantity. For a decrease in demand, the new demand curve (D2) is drawn to the left of D1, with the new equilibrium point (E2) showing lower price and quantity.

Understanding these shifts and their impacts is crucial for various economic decisions. Businesses can use this knowledge to anticipate market changes and adjust their production and pricing strategies accordingly. Policymakers can consider how their decisions might affect demand and the resulting market outcomes. Consumers can better understand why prices and availability of goods change over time.

In conclusion, market equilibrium provides a framework for understanding how markets function and how they respond to changes in demand. By analyzing shifts in the demand curve and their effects on equilibrium price and quantity, we can gain valuable insights into market dynamics and make more informed economic decisions. Whether you're a business owner, a policymaker, or a consumer, grasping these concepts can help you navigate the complex world of economics more effectively.

## Shifts in Supply and Their Impact on Equilibrium

Understanding shifts in supply and their effects on equilibrium price and quantity is crucial for grasping market dynamics. The supply curve represents the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity that producers are willing to supply at each price point. When factors other than price cause changes in supply, we observe shifts in the supply curve, which lead to new market equilibriums.

An increase in supply occurs when producers are willing to offer more of a good at every price level. This results in a rightward shift of the supply curve. Factors that can cause an increase in supply include technological advancements, lower production costs, favorable weather conditions for agricultural products, or an increase in the number of sellers in the market. For example, if a new technology makes it cheaper to produce smartphones, manufacturers will be willing to supply more phones at each price point, shifting the supply curve to the right.

When supply increases, the new equilibrium point occurs at a lower price and higher quantity. This is because the increased availability of the product leads to competition among sellers, driving prices down. Simultaneously, the lower price attracts more buyers, resulting in a higher quantity sold. The graphs from the video illustrate this movement, showing the supply curve shifting right and the new equilibrium point moving down and to the right along the demand curve.

Conversely, a decrease in supply happens when producers are willing to offer less of a good at every price level, causing a leftward shift of the supply curve. Factors leading to a decrease in supply might include rising production costs, unfavorable weather conditions, new regulations that make production more expensive, or a decrease in the number of sellers. For instance, if a disease affects coffee crops, reducing the harvest, the supply of coffee beans would decrease, shifting the supply curve to the left.

When supply decreases, the new market equilibrium is established at a higher price and lower quantity. The scarcity of the product allows sellers to charge higher prices, but fewer buyers are willing or able to purchase at these elevated prices. The graphs in the video demonstrate this by showing the supply curve shifting left, with the new equilibrium point moving up and to the left along the demand curve.

It's important to note that the magnitude of these changes in equilibrium price and quantity depends on the elasticity of demand. For products with elastic demand, changes in supply will have a larger effect on quantity and a smaller effect on price. For products with inelastic demand, shifts in supply will have a larger impact on price and a smaller impact on quantity.

Real-world examples of supply shifts are abundant. The oil market frequently experiences supply shifts due to geopolitical events or OPEC decisions, leading to significant price fluctuations. In agriculture, weather conditions can cause dramatic shifts in the supply of crops from year to year, affecting food prices globally. The recent global chip shortage, caused by production disruptions and increased demand, led to a leftward shift in the supply curve for semiconductors, resulting in higher prices and shortages in various industries relying on these components.

Understanding these supply shifts is crucial for businesses, policymakers, and consumers alike. Businesses need to anticipate and respond to changes in supply to remain competitive and profitable. Policymakers may need to intervene in markets where supply shifts cause significant societal impacts. Consumers benefit from understanding these dynamics as it helps them make informed decisions about purchases and timing in various markets.

In conclusion, shifts in supply play a pivotal role in determining market equilibrium. Whether increasing or decreasing, these shifts result in new equilibrium points with different prices and quantities. By analyzing the factors that cause supply shifts and their impacts on markets, we gain valuable insights into economic dynamics and can better navigate the complex world of supply and demand.

## Simultaneous Shifts in Supply and Demand

In real-world markets, it's common for both supply and demand to shift simultaneously, creating complex scenarios that affect market equilibrium analysis. Understanding these simultaneous shifts is crucial for predicting changes in equilibrium price and quantity. This analysis is essential for businesses, policymakers, and economists to make informed decisions and forecasts.

When supply and demand shift concurrently, the resulting impact on equilibrium price and quantity depends on the direction and magnitude of each shift. These simultaneous shifts can lead to various outcomes, sometimes reinforcing each other's effects and other times counteracting them. Let's explore different scenarios to understand how these combined shifts influence market equilibrium analysis.

Scenario 1: Supply and Demand Both Increase When both supply and demand increase simultaneously, the effect on equilibrium price is ambiguous, while the equilibrium quantity will definitely increase. The magnitude of each shift determines the price outcome. If demand increases more than supply, the price will rise. Conversely, if supply increases more than demand, the price will fall. In cases where both shifts are of equal magnitude, the price may remain unchanged while quantity increases significantly.

Scenario 2: Supply and Demand Both Decrease In this scenario, both curves shift to the left, resulting in a definite decrease in equilibrium quantity. However, the effect on price is again ambiguous and depends on which shift is larger. If the decrease in demand is greater, the price will fall. If the decrease in supply is more significant, the price will rise. Equal magnitude shifts may leave the price unchanged while quantity decreases.

Scenario 3: Supply Increases, Demand Decreases This combination leads to a definite decrease in equilibrium price. The effect on quantity, however, is uncertain and depends on the relative magnitudes of the shifts. If the supply increase is larger than the demand decrease, quantity will rise. If the demand decrease outweighs the supply increase, quantity will fall. Equal shifts may result in an unchanged quantity with a lower price.

Scenario 4: Supply Decreases, Demand Increases In this case, the equilibrium price will definitely increase. The impact on quantity is ambiguous and relies on the relative sizes of the shifts. A larger increase in demand compared to the decrease in supply will lead to higher quantity. Conversely, if the supply decrease is more significant than the demand increase, quantity will fall. Equal magnitudes may leave quantity unchanged while price rises.

To illustrate these concepts, let's consider examples from the video: 1. The market for electric vehicles (EVs): Suppose there's an increase in demand due to growing environmental awareness, coupled with an increase in supply as manufacturers ramp up production. If demand increases more than supply, we'll see higher prices and quantities of EVs sold. 2. The housing market: If there's a decrease in demand due to rising interest rates, along with a decrease in supply due to construction slowdowns, we might see lower quantities of homes sold. The price effect would depend on which decrease is larger. 3. The oil market: An increase in supply due to new extraction technologies, combined with a decrease in demand as consumers shift to renewable energy, could lead to lower oil prices. The quantity effect would depend on the relative magnitudes of these shifts.

Understanding these simultaneous shifts is crucial for market equilibrium analysis. It's important to note that the magnitude of each shift plays a pivotal role in determining the final outcome. In practice, economists and analysts often use data and statistical models to estimate the size of these shifts and predict their combined effects on market equilibrium.

Moreover, these shifts can occur over different time frames. Some changes might be immediate, while others could take months or years to fully materialize. This temporal aspect adds another layer of complexity to market analysis and forecasting.

In conclusion, simultaneous shifts in supply and demand create dynamic market scenarios that require careful analysis. By understanding the direction and magnitude of these shifts, we can better predict changes in equilibrium price and quantity. This knowledge is invaluable for businesses planning their strategies, policymakers designing effective regulations, and economists studying market behavior. As markets continue to evolve rapidly in our interconnected global economy, the ability to analyze and interpret these simultaneous shifts becomes increasingly important for all stakeholders in the economic landscape.

## Factors Influencing Changes in Supply and Demand

Understanding the factors that cause shifts in supply and demand curves is crucial for comprehending real-world economic situations and their impact on market equilibrium. These shifts play a significant role in determining prices and quantities of goods and services in the marketplace.

Factors influencing demand are numerous and varied. Income changes can significantly affect consumer purchasing power, leading to shifts in demand curves. As incomes rise, demand for normal goods typically increases, while demand for inferior goods may decrease. Consumer preferences and tastes also play a crucial role, often influenced by trends, advertising, or cultural shifts. Changes in the prices of related goods, such as substitutes or complements, can impact demand for a particular product. Population changes, including size and demographics, can alter overall market demand. Expectations about future prices or availability can cause consumers to adjust their current purchasing behavior.

On the supply side, several factors can cause shifts in the curve. Changes in production costs, including raw materials, labor, and technology, directly impact a firm's ability and willingness to supply goods at various price levels. Technological advancements often lead to increased efficiency and lower production costs, shifting the supply curve to the right. Government policies, such as taxes, subsidies, or regulations, can significantly influence supply. Natural disasters or weather conditions can affect the supply of agricultural products or raw materials. The number of sellers in a market can also shift the supply curve, with more sellers typically increasing overall supply.

These factors relate to real-world economic situations in numerous ways. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic caused significant shifts in both supply and demand across various industries. On the demand side, there was a surge in demand for personal protective equipment and home office supplies, while demand for travel and hospitality services plummeted. On the supply side, disruptions in global supply chains led to shortages and increased production costs for many goods.

Another example is the impact of technological advancements on the music industry. The rise of digital streaming platforms has dramatically shifted both supply and demand curves. On the supply side, it became easier and cheaper to produce and distribute music, increasing the overall supply. On the demand side, consumer preferences shifted towards streaming services, altering the way people consume music.

Climate change and environmental concerns are also causing shifts in both supply and demand curves across various sectors. There's an increasing demand for eco-friendly products and renewable energy sources, while supply chains are being disrupted by extreme weather events and changing regulations.

These shifts in supply and demand curves have a significant impact on market equilibrium. When either curve shifts, it leads to a new equilibrium price and quantity. For example, if demand increases while supply remains constant, it will result in a higher equilibrium price and quantity. Conversely, if supply increases while demand remains constant, it will lead to a lower equilibrium price and higher quantity.

Understanding these dynamics is crucial for businesses, policymakers, and consumers alike. Businesses need to anticipate and respond to shifts in supply and demand to remain competitive. Policymakers must consider these factors when implementing economic policies. Consumers benefit from understanding these concepts to make informed decisions about their purchases and investments.

In conclusion, the factors influencing supply and demand are diverse and interconnected, ranging from economic conditions and technological advancements to social trends and environmental concerns. These factors constantly shape and reshape market dynamics, leading to new equilibrium points. By studying and analyzing these shifts, we can better understand and navigate the complex landscape of modern economics.

## Practical Applications of Price and Quantity Changes

Price and quantity changes play a crucial role in shaping various industries and markets, influencing economic decision-making for businesses and policymakers alike. Real-world examples of these dynamics can be observed across multiple sectors, demonstrating the far-reaching impact of supply and demand forces.

In the energy sector, fluctuations in oil prices significantly affect both producers and consumers. When oil prices rise, energy companies may increase production, leading to higher revenues. Conversely, consumers might reduce their fuel consumption or seek alternative energy sources. For instance, the 2014 oil price crash led to a slowdown in shale oil production in the United States, while also stimulating demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles.

The agricultural industry is particularly sensitive to price and quantity changes. Weather conditions, crop yields, and global demand all contribute to price volatility. When grain prices spike due to drought or increased demand, farmers may shift their crop allocations to maximize profits. This, in turn, can affect food prices for consumers and influence government policies on agricultural subsidies and trade agreements.

In the technology sector, the interplay between price and quantity is evident in the smartphone market. As production costs decrease and competition intensifies, manufacturers can lower prices, potentially increasing sales volume. This strategy has been employed by companies like Xiaomi and OnePlus to gain market share. Conversely, premium brands like Apple maintain higher prices to preserve their profit margins and brand positioning.

The housing market provides another compelling example of price and quantity dynamics. When housing prices rise, construction companies may increase their building activities to capitalize on the trend. However, this can lead to oversupply, eventually causing prices to stabilize or decline. Policymakers often use this information to implement measures such as adjusting interest rates or zoning regulations to influence housing affordability and availability.

In the retail sector, businesses leverage price and quantity data to optimize their inventory management and pricing strategies. During peak shopping seasons, retailers may increase prices on high-demand items while offering discounts on slower-moving products to balance their inventory. E-commerce giants like Amazon use sophisticated algorithms to adjust prices in real-time based on demand, competitor pricing, and inventory levels.

Policymakers utilize price and quantity information to make informed decisions on economic policies. Central banks, for example, closely monitor inflation rates and economic indicators to determine monetary policy. If prices are rising too rapidly, they may increase interest rates to cool down the economy. Conversely, during economic downturns, they may lower rates to stimulate spending and investment.

Understanding these market dynamics allows businesses to develop effective pricing strategies, optimize production levels, and make informed investment decisions. For policymakers, this knowledge is essential in crafting regulations, trade policies, and economic stimulus measures that promote stable and sustainable economic growth.

## Conclusion: Mastering Changes in Price and Quantity

In this article, we've explored the crucial concepts of changes in equilibrium price and quantity, essential for economic analysis. The introduction video provided a clear foundation for understanding these dynamics. We've learned how shifts in supply and demand curves impact equilibrium, and how to differentiate between movements along a curve and shifts of entire curves. These concepts are vital for predicting market outcomes and making informed decisions. By grasping the interplay between change in price and change in quantity, you're better equipped to analyze real-world economic situations. Remember, equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity are not static; they respond to various market forces. As you continue your economic journey, apply these principles to diverse scenarios, from local markets to global economic trends. This knowledge empowers you to interpret economic data, forecast market changes, and develop strategic insights in your professional or academic pursuits.

### Changes in Price & Quantity Overview:

Changes in Price & Quantity Overview: Changes in Demand

• Case 1: Increase in Demand
• Case 2: Decrease in Demand

#### Step 1: Understanding Market Equilibrium

Welcome to this section. Recall from the last section that we learned about market equilibrium, which occurs when the supply curve intersects the demand curve. At this intersection, we can determine the equilibrium price and quantity. Additionally, we previously discussed the factors that can cause shifts in demand and supply curves. In this section, we will combine these concepts to understand how shifts in the demand curve affect the equilibrium price and quantity.

#### Step 2: Case 1 - Increase in Demand

When demand increases, the demand curve shifts rightward. This shift results in a new intersection point on the graph, which represents the new equilibrium price and quantity. For example, if the original equilibrium price was $1.50 and the quantity was 10 units, an increase in demand might shift the equilibrium price to$2 and the quantity to 15 units. Therefore, an increase in demand leads to an increase in both the equilibrium price and quantity.

#### Step 3: Case 2 - Decrease in Demand

Conversely, when demand decreases, the demand curve shifts leftward. This shift results in a new intersection point on the graph, representing the new equilibrium price and quantity. For instance, if the original equilibrium price was $1.50 and the quantity was 10 units, a decrease in demand might shift the equilibrium price to$1 and the quantity to 5 units. Therefore, a decrease in demand leads to a decrease in both the equilibrium price and quantity.

#### Step 4: Analyzing the Impact of Demand Shifts

To summarize, changes in demand can significantly impact the market equilibrium. An increase in demand shifts the demand curve rightward, resulting in higher equilibrium prices and quantities. Conversely, a decrease in demand shifts the demand curve leftward, leading to lower equilibrium prices and quantities. Understanding these shifts is crucial for analyzing market behavior and predicting future trends.

#### Step 5: Visualizing the Changes

Visual aids, such as graphs, can help illustrate these concepts more clearly. By plotting the original and new demand curves, we can see the shifts and their effects on equilibrium price and quantity. This visual representation reinforces the understanding of how changes in demand influence market equilibrium.

#### Step 6: Practical Applications

These concepts have practical applications in various fields, including economics, business, and finance. For instance, businesses can use this knowledge to make informed decisions about pricing strategies, production levels, and market entry. Policymakers can also use this information to design effective economic policies that stabilize markets and promote growth.

#### Step 7: Conclusion

In conclusion, understanding the impact of changes in demand on market equilibrium is essential for analyzing market dynamics. By recognizing how shifts in the demand curve affect equilibrium price and quantity, we can make better predictions and decisions in both personal and professional contexts. This knowledge serves as a foundation for more advanced economic studies and practical applications.

### FAQs

1. #### What is change in price in economics?

In economics, a change in price refers to an increase or decrease in the monetary value of a good or service. This can be caused by shifts in supply or demand, or both. Price changes affect market equilibrium and can lead to changes in the quantity of goods bought and sold.

2. #### What causes equilibrium price and quantity to increase?

Equilibrium price and quantity increase when there's an increase in demand while supply remains constant, or when both demand and supply increase, with demand increasing more than supply. This shift results in a new equilibrium point with higher price and quantity.

3. #### What is the relationship between equilibrium quantity and price?

The equilibrium quantity and price represent the point where supply and demand intersect. At this point, the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded. Changes in supply or demand can alter this equilibrium, leading to new price and quantity levels where the market clears.

4. #### How do you find the change in equilibrium quantity?

To find the change in equilibrium quantity, you need to analyze how supply and demand shifts affect the market. Compare the new equilibrium point to the original one. The difference between the two quantities represents the change in equilibrium quantity. This often requires graphical analysis or mathematical calculations using supply and demand equations.

5. #### What is a change in demand vs quantity demanded?

A change in demand refers to a shift of the entire demand curve, caused by factors other than price (e.g., income changes, preferences). A change in quantity demanded is a movement along the existing demand curve, caused solely by a change in price. The former affects the equilibrium point, while the latter does not shift the curve itself.

### Prerequisite Topics

Understanding the fundamental concepts that lay the groundwork for more complex economic principles is crucial when studying changes in price and quantity. Two key prerequisite topics that are essential to grasp are Cross & income elasticity of demand and Market equilibrium. These concepts provide the necessary foundation to comprehend the intricate relationships between price fluctuations and quantity changes in the market.

The concept of elasticity of supply and demand is fundamental to understanding how changes in price affect quantity demanded or supplied. This prerequisite topic explores the responsiveness of consumers and producers to price changes, which is directly related to the main topic of changes in price and quantity. By mastering the principles of elasticity, students can better predict and analyze how market participants react to price fluctuations, ultimately influencing the quantity of goods or services exchanged.

Moreover, the study of market equilibrium analysis is crucial for comprehending the dynamics of price and quantity changes. This prerequisite topic delves into the forces that drive markets towards a balance between supply and demand. Understanding market equilibrium provides insights into how prices and quantities adjust when external factors disrupt the market's natural state. This knowledge is invaluable when examining the broader topic of changes in price and quantity, as it helps explain the mechanisms through which markets find new equilibrium points following shifts in supply or demand.

By thoroughly grasping these prerequisite topics, students will be better equipped to analyze complex scenarios involving changes in price and quantity. For instance, when studying how a change in income affects the demand for a particular good, the concepts learned from Cross & income elasticity of demand become invaluable. Similarly, when examining how external shocks impact market prices and quantities, the principles of Market equilibrium provide a solid framework for analysis.

In conclusion, the importance of mastering these prerequisite topics cannot be overstated. They serve as the building blocks for understanding the intricate relationships between price and quantity changes in various market conditions. By investing time in thoroughly comprehending elasticity of supply and demand and market equilibrium analysis, students will develop a robust foundation that enables them to tackle more advanced economic concepts with confidence and clarity. This comprehensive understanding will not only enhance their academic performance but also provide valuable insights applicable to real-world economic scenarios.

Changes in either demand or supply can change the equilibrium price and quantity. Let’s explore the different changes that can happen in demand and supply, and see how the equilibrium price and quantity changes.

Changes in Demand

Case 1: Demand increases
In this case, the demand curve shifts rightward, and there will be in a new intersection. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price and quantity have both increased.

Case 2: Demand decreases
In this case, the demand curve shifts leftward. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price and quantity have both decreased.

Changes in Supply

Case 1: Supply increases
In this case, the supply curve shifts rightward. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price has decreased, and the equilibrium price has increased.

Case 2: Supply decreases
In this case, the supply curve shifts leftward. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price has increased, but the equilibrium price has decreased.

Changes in Both Demand and Supply

Case 1: Both Demand and supply increases
In this case, both the demand and supply curve shift rightward. At the new intersection, we will see that the equilibrium price is uncertain (depends on the magnitude of the changes), but the equilibrium quantity has increased.

Case 2: Both Demand and supply decreases
In this case, both the demand and supply curve shift leftward. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price is uncertain (depends on the magnitude of the changes), but the equilibrium quantity has decreased.

Case 3: Demand increases and supply decreases
In this case, the demand curve shifts rightward, but the supply curve shifts leftward. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price increases, but the changes in equilibrium quantity is uncertain (depends on the magnitude of the changes).

Case 4: Demand decrease and supply increases
In this case, the demand curve shifts leftward, but the supply curve shifts rightward. At the new intersection, we see that the equilibrium price decreases, but the changes in equilibrium quantity is uncertain (depends on the magnitude of the changes).