Moles, mass and gas calculations

Moles, mass and gas calculations

Lessons

In this lesson, we will learn:
• To recognize the format of stoichiometry test questions and calculations.
• To recall the molar volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure and its meaning.
Methods to calculate number of moles of chemicals in reactions using mass, moles and volume of gas.

Notes:

• The units of mass is g, the units of amount of atoms or molecules is mol, and the units of atomic or molecular mass (MRM_R) is g/mol (pronounced “grams per mole” sometimes written gmol1^{-1}).

• The formula: n(mol)=mass(g)MR(gmol)n(mol) = \frac{mass(g)}{M_R (\frac{g}{mol})} can be used to calculate the number of moles of a substance when given mass, and using the periodic table to find atomic or molecular mass MRM_R of that substance.

• With the moles formula above, you can treat the unit terms like you would in general algebra: ggmol=mol\frac{g}{\frac{g}{mol}}=mol, where g cancels out.

• The molar volume of gas at standard temperature (0°C, 273K) and pressure is 22.4 litres per mole (22.4 L/mol).
The molar volume of gas at room temperature (25°C, 298K) and pressure is 24 litres per mole (24 L/mol).
\circ Whenever answering test questions involving gas volume, check the conditions the reaction is occurring under. DO NOT CONFUSE THE TWO TERMS.

• Stoichiometry calculations involve unit conversions from one quantity given in the question to an unknown quantity:
\circ To get to moles, use the equation and the molar ratios shown.
\circ To get to volume, use the molar volume of gas constants.
\circ To get to mass, use the atomic/molecular masses shown in the periodic table.
  • Introduction
    Recap of stoichiometry: Introduction
    a)
    Recap stoichiometry basics; what a chemical equation tells us.

    b)
    Using number of moles in stoichiometry calculations.

    c)
    Molar volume: its meaning and use.

    d)
    A molar volume tip to remember.


  • 1.
    Calculate the masses and volumes of reactants and products used in chemical reactions.
    2C6_6H14(l)+_{14\;(l)} +19O2(g)_{2\;(g)} →12CO2(g)+_{2\;(g)} + 14H2_2O(g)_{\;(g)}
    a)
    If 75g of C6_6H14_{14} is burned, what mass of CO2_2 would get produced from this reaction?

    b)
    If 240g of H2_2O is produced from this reaction, how many moles of C6_6H14_{14} would be required?

    c)
    At STP, what volume of O2_2 would be required to produce 85 L of CO2_2 in this process?

    d)
    What mass of C6_6H14_{14} would be required to produce 15 moles of CO2_2?


  • 2.
    Calculate the masses and volumes of reactants and products used in chemical reactions.
    P4(s)+_{4\;(s)} + 5O2(g)_{2\;(g)} →P4_4O10(s)_{10\;(s)}
    a)
    At STP, what volume of O2_2 gas is needed to completely combust 2kg of P4_4?

    b)
    If 25 L of O2_2 were available, how much mass of P4_4 could be reacted with?

    c)
    What mass of P4_4O10_{10} would be produced by this?


  • 3.
    Calculate the volume and number of moles of reactants involved in chemical reactions.
    2NH3(aq)+_{3\;(aq)} + NaOCl(aq)_{\;(aq)} →N2_2H4(aq)+_{4\;(aq)} + NaCl(aq)+_{\;(aq)} + H2_2O(l)_{\;(l)}
    a)
    If 5000 kg of hydrazine (N2_2H4_{4}) is required from this industrial process, how much ammonia gas (in L completely dissolved in solution at STP) is required as starting material?

    b)
    How many moles of hydrazine could be produced if only 5 kg of NaOCl was available?


  • 4.
    Calculate the volume of reactants required in a chemical process.
    SiCl4(g)+_{4\;(g)} + 2H2(g)_{2\;(g)} →Si(s)+_{\;(s)} + 4HCl(g)_{\;(g)}
    500 mg of Si is required from this process. What is the total volume, in L, of H2_2 and SiCl4_4 required to produce this?